Superconductivity is Changing the Energy Landscape
Introducing Superconducting Permanent Magnets
A Whole New Class of Magnets
A Revolution In Permanent Magnets

Can be Used to Improve the Efficiency of any Electrical Machine

They are the Strongest Permanent Magnets in the World

Machinery, which already uses magnets, could be made smaller, lighter and more cheaply by using superconducting permanent magnets!

In developing this technology, the use of the extremely large superconducting permanent magnets will improve efficiency, and this is even more so when combined with the micro-channel cooling process.

Magnetism is a type of power/energy in a MHD channel. With MHD generators as you increase the magnetic field the amount of electricity produced increases proportionally.

The strength of a magnetic field is measured in units of tesla in the SI units, and in gauss in the cgs system of units. 10,000 gauss are equal to one tesla.

The powerful 16 Tesla Superconducting Permanent Magnets take up 2 Million times Less space and are cheaper to charge. They redefined the standards of magnetic performance and represent a crucial long-awaited revolutionary breakthrough in the advancement of MHD Power technology.

A new generation of Superconducting Permanent Magnets which are 10 times stronger than conventional magnets, are so powerful that a 1 inch sample could potentially support the weight of a seven-ton truck.

MHD generators require an extremely powerful magnets! The next generation of Superconducting Magnets is here. CSPU will be using A New Type of Permanent Magnets - Superconducting Permanent Magnets for the first time with Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) Power Plants. MHD generators require enormously powerful magnetic fields if they are to be efficient enough to be practical.

The extraordinarily high magnetic field is a key feature required to increase MHD system efficiency. However, iron core electromagnets have proven impractical for use in MHD energy conversion devices because they require enormous current draw to sustain high Tesla magnetic flux densities. Prior art MHD energy conversion devices have, therefore, been limited to the use of iron-ore magnets having magnetic flux densities of no greater than 1-3 Tesla.

The recent demonstration of superconductive permanent magnets with magnetic flux densities of up to 16 Tesla is a very encouraging development that can enable commercially viable high efficiency MHD technology.

Making Superconducting Permanent Magnets
With Pulsed Field Magnetization

“YBCO” High-Field Superconductor
Engineering Magnetic Mechanical Design

Superconducting Permanent Magnets uses a heat engine which converts thermal energy into currents of millions of amps to create these super magnets, generating a series of magnetic waves which progressively magnetize the super-conductor (Yttrium barium copper oxide, often abbreviated “YBCO”, it is a superconducting ceramic composed. In the family of crystalline chemical compounds, famous for displaying "high-temperature superconductivity") much in the same way a nail can be magnetized by stroking it over a magnet. Like seeding in a rice paddy.

As long as the superconductor stays cold (helium bath), minus 459 degrees Fahrenheit, using a cryogenic system for circulating super-cold liquid helium to cool the Superconducting Permanent Magnets, the magnetic currents will flow uninterrupted, providing powerful, stable, shapeable magnetic fields for a wide range of applications.

Previously available electromagnets had proven impractical for use in MHD energy conversion devices because they require electricity to stay cool in order to sustain the high Tesla magnetic flux densities. Prior art MHD energy conversion devices have, therefore, been limited to the use of magnets having magnetic flux densities of no greater than 1-2 Tesla. However, recent development permits the use of with high temperature superconductors allows trapped flux to behave as permanent magnets having magnetic flux densities of up to 17 Tesla . This has never been applied before to improve the efficiency of an MHD energy conversion device and is a key advancement to the state of the art. With MHD the stronger the magnetic field the greater the power generated. MHD generator technology is superior to all other electricity generators.

These new magnets could revolutionize use in future MHD generators and play a key role in energy efficiency and storage.

Superconducting Permanent Magnets are:

With all existing Permanent Magnets electrons are tied down and have a built in limit to the amount of magnesium that can reached. However with Superconducting Permanent Magnets electrons work in a different way. They are not tied down and limited. As with state of the art magnets are today. With extremely high-field Superconducting Permanent Magnets electrons can move freely allowing them to become super charged/conductive, up to 16 Tesla when they are made super-cooled in Nitrogen Gas at about 200 degrees Celsius 320 degrees Fahrenheit.

The superconducting properties only come into effect as the magnets are chilled to 93K (minus 180 degrees Celsius) using liquid nitrogen, unleashing the magnets' capability to maintain very high current loops and hence very strong magnetic fields.

Superconducting Permanent Magnets

– Safer and higher efficient operations due to no heat generation

– Strong and stable magnetic field

– Can maintain a flux density order of magnitude bigger than conventional materials

– Magnetic fields as high as 16 T are not achievable in conventional iron-based permanent magnets.

– Magnetized on a molecular scale which means that Superconducting Permanent Magnets can maintain a flux density orders of magnitude bigger than conventional materials

– Flux Pumping used in making Superconducting Permanent Magnets is especially significant when one bears in mind that all other methods of magnetizing superconductors require application of a magnetic flux density at least as high as the final required field. This is not true of Flux Pumping!

The thermal energy as it is dispensed creates a series of magnetic waves which gradually magnetize the superconductor at a fraction of the costs involved in conventional approaches. It is in effect a thermally actuated superconducting flux pump that builds up the magnetic field incrementally. A heat engine is used to convert thermal energy into currents of millions of amps to create these Superconducting Permanent Magnets, generating a series of magnetic waves which progressively magnetise the super-conductor YBCO Tape. As long as the superconductor stays super-cooled (requires no current) the magnetic field will flow uninterrupted, providing powerful, stable magnetic fields, creating this new type of powerful magnet technology - Superconducting Permanent Magnets. Much in the same way a nail can be magnetised by stroking it over a magnet.

– Enhancement of the degrees of freedom for designing devices

The Effect of an Increased Magnetic Field on MHD Power Generation

The high magnetic field is a key feature required to increase solar MHD system efficiency.

In the past, superconducting magnets that MHD generation needed required great amounts of electricity to create superconducting magnets, which made MHD not economically practical.

Superconducting Permanent Magnets technology represent a true breakthrough.

The CSPU MHD generator uses a new generation of superconducting magnets, which are revolutionary and very cost-effective. This new generation of Superconducting Permanent Magnets has to be chilled to cryogenic temperatures in order to reach superconductivity magnetism.

Various Applications Across a Multitude of Fields

CSPU is DEVELOPING STATE-OF-THE-ART ultra-light, ultra-compact Superconducting Permanent Magnets for MHD Power Generation and many other applications . Machinery, which already uses magnets, could be also made smaller, lighter and more cheaply by using Superconducting Permanent Magnets. Superconducting Permanent Magnets will allow the development of machines that have not previously been possible!

The increased density of the superconducting bulk magnets overcomes issues of limited power due to the size of magnets currently in operation and could lead to cars with electric motors small enough to fit in a wheel hub, wind turbines producing greater amounts of energy and MRI scanners or particle accelerators with greater efficiency.

This includes: Ultra-Compact Ultra-Efficient Machines, Superconducting Motors and Generators: e.g. Wind Turbines, HTS Generators - Large Electric Utility Motors and Generators, Hand-Held MRI Scanners, Accelerator Magnets, Wave and Tidal Energy, Aerospace Applications of MHD, Medicine, High Speed Spaceship Propulsion, Hypersonic vehicles with MHD, MHD Hypersonic Flow Control for Advanced Aerospace, Hypersonic MHD Generator-Scramjet-Driven MHD, MHD Power to Control Aerodynamics and Propulsion, MHD Plasma Actuator, MHD Plasma Propulsors Electromagnetic Rocket Engine, Trains (Maglev Trains), Buses, Cars with Electric Motors Small enough to Fit in a Wheel Hub, Trucks, Pulse Detonation Combustion System for Magnetohydrodynamics, Magnetic Separation, Mass Spectrometers, Beam-Steering Magnets Used in Particle Accelerators, Bearing for a Flywheel, Solar-Pumped MHD Excimer Laser, High-Performance Transformers, Power Storage Devices, Electric Power Transmission, Magnetic Levitation Devices, Defense applications, MHD Nuclear Power, Ship Propulsion. Boats/Ships and Submarines - Seawater is highly conducting and a suitable fluid for MHD power or propulsion effect. Generation of MHD electric power from solar energy. Liquid metal magnetrohydrogynamic (LMMHD) generator driven by a nuclear reactor. Protective superconducting magnetic shields blocking space radiation from Astronauts on deep-space missions. Magnetohydrodynamic drive or MHD propulsor is a method for propelling vessels using only electric and magnetic fields with no moving parts, using magnetohydrodynamics.

Applications: Medicine
Superconducting Permanent Magnets
Currently Being Developed for Cancer Treatment

Magnetic Microspheres: A Novel Drug Delivery System

Treatment begins by injecting a patient intravenously with a drug that’s either encapsulated into a magnetic microsphere (or nanosphere) or conjugated on the surface of the micro/nanosphere.

A megnetic field is then applied to the target site of the patient, thus allowing them to deliver the drug locally.

Very high concentration of chemotherapeutic agents can be achieved near the target site without any toxic effect to normal surrounding tissue or to whole body.

One of its important application is that it is used for targeting tumors using anticancer drugs. Being more stable, it has an advantage over other delivery systems like liposomes.

Can also be used for any type of drug and more: A well designed controlled drug delivery system can provide a therapeutic amount of drug to the proper site in the body and then maintain the desired drug concentration for the specific period of time. It has been observed that magnetic microspheres are among the best novel drug delivery systems, as it has the advantage of target specificity and better patient compliance. Its applications are enormous as they are not only used for delivering drugs but also for imaging tumors, detecting bio-molecular interaction etc

Magnetohydrodynamic Naval propulsion

MHD propulsion is a revolutionary type of propulsion system that doesn't use propellers to power ships and submarines but instead uses a magnetic force on the current. The method eliminates motors, drive shafts, gears as well as propellers, so it proposes to be a low-noise system with great reliability at low cost.

Cycle design and coupling of nuclear-MHD power unit to sea-water
MHD propulsion system for naval propulsion

YAMATO 1 The First Ship that Made use of MHD Technology

MHD Nuclear Power

The results of calculations of the characteristics and development of a scheme and technical make-up of an open-cycle space power facility based on a high-temperature nuclear reactor for a nuclear rocket motor and a 20 MW Faraday MHD generator are presented. A heterogeneous channel-vessel IVG-1 reactor, which heated hydrogen to 3100 K, with the pressure at the exit from the reactor core up to 5 MPa, burn rate 5 kg/sec, and thermal power up to 220 MW is examined. The main parameters of the MHD generator are determined: Cs seed fraction 20%, stopping pressure at the entrance 2 MPa, electric conductivity 30 S/m, Mach number 0.7, magnetic induction 6 T, electric power 20 MW, specific energy extraction 4 MJ/kg.

The Next Generation of Superconducting Magnets Technology

CSPU plans to make the strongest permanent magnets in the world! To be used in many different industries.

Superiority of MHD Power Generation
Superconducting Permanent Magnets
CSPU on BBC Radio
Concentrated Sunlight Heat Electricity - Solar MHD
Highly Disruptive Technology
CSPU Intellectual Property Portfolio
CSPU Management
CSPU in Forbes
CSPU in the Press

Related Links
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Licenses Novel “Magnetohydrodynamics” Technology
Letter from Jian Sun, PhD - Director, Center for Future Energy Systems - Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute